Kaiser Family papers

When Nazi Germany invaded and then occupied the Netherlands, they enforced anti-Jewish racial laws. Jews were required to wear a yellow star with the word Jew (Jood) on their clothing, and to carry identification cards that clearly indicated their religion.

The identification card shown here displays the letter "J" prominently on its front. On the back of the card the name "Israel" is handwritten after the type-written first name of Siegfried. Germans required that all German Jewish men take the middle name of Israel, and that all Jewish women take the middle name of Sara. This requirement did not apply to Dutch citizens under occupation.

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